The formation of a disulfide bond from two cysteine residues is an oxidation reaction. This work is a landmark in biochemistry because it showed for the first time that a protein has a precisely defined amino acid sequence. This accomplishment stimulated other scientists to carry out sequence studies of a wide variety of proteins. Indeed, the complete amino acid sequences of more than 100,000 proteins are now known. The striking amino acid structure chain is that each protein has a unique, precisely defined amino acid sequence.
20 amino acids and their structures and functions
For example, based on the propensity of the side chain to be in contact with water, amino acids are classified as hydrophobic low propensity to be in contact with water , polar and charged energetically favorable contact with water. Polar amino acids include serine and threonine contain a hydroxyl group , asparagine and glutamine contain amide group. Histidine is also a polar residue, although its behavior depends on the polarity of its environment. It has two —NH group with a pKa value of around 6. However, the pKa may be modulated by the environment inside the protein, and when raised the side chain may give away a proton, loosing its positive charge and becoming neutral.
non polar amino acids
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amino acid chart
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